Energy optimization takes place by pump control and strategic use of network and reservoir capacity. Pumps are controlled using one or more of the following techniques:
- Usage and hydraulic models and predefined settings;
- Required pressure at specific points in the network;
- Expected water usage using demand prediction applications (e.g. OPIR).
As the water distribution network grows organically and changes in water usage occur, energy optimization would require the network and control systems to be updated regularly. However, as no effective solutions have been made available yet, distribution networks and control systems are not frequently optimized for these changes.